[MITgcm-support] adjoint compilation on 64bit system

Martin Losch mlosch at awi-bremerhaven.de
Thu Feb 24 11:34:26 EST 2005


hey, thanks for the long and knowledgable answer. I have to read it  
again tonight with a little more time on my hands. From a quick glance  
I think taht it is possible to boil it down to the following cook book:
If I have output (ecco_c*, OPWARM*) generated with linux_ia32_ifc type  
build options file (i can't do anything about that, but repeat the  
whole optimization). In order to be able to read these files with an  
executable that has bin generated with a linux_amd64_pgf77 type build  
options file I have to build that executable with the flag  
-mcmodel=medium -Mlarge_arrays options added to the FFLAGS line.

Is that correct?


On Feb 24, 2005, at 5:05 PM, Constantinos Evangelinos wrote:

> On Thursday 24 February 2005 05:11, Martin Losch wrote:
>> I am trying to compile the adjoint MITgcm on an AMD 64bit opteron
>> machine with the Portland Group fortran compiler. I have no problems
>> with my build options file linux_amd64_pgf77_ocl (that I am  
>> responsible
>> for anyway) as long as I don't ALLOW_ECCO_ADJOINT_RUN (in
>> ECCO_CPPOPTIONS.h), but use ALLOW_ECCO_FORWARD_RUN. But as soon as
>> there is the adjoint model involved (ad_taf_output.f) I get funny  
>> error
>> messages at the link step:
>>> ad_taf_output.o: In function `adconvective_adjustment_':
>>> ad_taf_output.o(.text+0xf018): relocation truncated to fit:
>>> R_X86_64_32S cadtheta_
>>> ad_taf_output.o(.text+0xf038): relocation truncated to fit:
>>> R_X86_64_32S cadtheta_
>>> ad_taf_output.o(.text+0xf4e0): relocation truncated to fit:
>>> R_X86_64_32S cadthetb_
>>> ad_taf_output.o(.text+0xf501): relocation truncated to fit:
>>> R_X86_64_32S cadthetb_
>> (most of them concern common blocks defined in ad_taf_output.f for the
>> tapes) but also:
>>> /var/tmp.shared/pgi/linux86-64/5.2/lib/libpgc.a(barrier.o): In
>>> function `_mp_get_parpar':
>>> barrier.o(.text+0x69): relocation truncated to fit: R_X86_64_32S
>>> _mp_parpar
>>> /var/tmp.shared/pgi/linux86-64/5.2/lib/libpgc.a(barrier.o): In
>>> function `_mp_lcpu2':
>>> barrier.o(.text+0x34e): relocation truncated to fit: R_X86_64_32S
>>> _mp_parpar
>> which doesn't have anything to do with ad_taf_output.f
>> These errors go away when I use an additional optiong: -fpic, which
>> according to the man pages "(Linux only) Instructs the compiler to
>> generate position-independent code with can be used to create shared
>> object files ..."
>> I don't see why the TAMC/TAF generated code should need this option
>> while the remaining part of the code doesn't need it. Any ideas?
> Hi Martin.
> The problem arises from the sizes of the arrays that you've specified  
> through
> your choices in tamc.h.
> Unfortunately the 64-bit code memort model in Linux/AMD64 is not one  
> (like
> nice IMHO models in Linux for IA-64 and Alpha) but 4! The small model  
> which
> is the default compilation target expects all individual objects to be
> smaller than 2GB. This provides clear speed advantages. The medium  
> model
> allows unlimited sizes for data objects but code sizes smaller than  
> 2GB and
> can be selected with -mcmodel=medium for both the GNU, PGI and  
> Pathscale
> compilers. There is also an unimplemented (currently by any available
> compiler) large model that allows an unlimited code size in addition to
> unlimited data size. The fourth model is the kernel model for kernel
> compilation.
>> From the GCC man page:
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
>        -mcmodel=small
>            Generate code for the small code model: the program and its  
> sym-
>            bols must be linked in the lower 2 GB of the address space.
>            Pointers are 64 bits.  Programs can be statically or  
> dynamically
>            linked.  This is the default code model.
>        -mcmodel=kernel
>            Generate code for the kernel code model.  The kernel runs  
> in the
>            negative 2 GB of the address space.  This model has to be  
> used for
>            Linux kernel code.
>        -mcmodel=medium
>            Generate code for the medium model: The program is linked  
> in the
>            lower 2 GB of the address space but symbols can be located  
> any-
>            where in the address space.  Programs can be statically or  
> dynami-
>            cally linked, but building of shared libraries are not  
> supported
>            with the medium model.
>        -mcmodel=large
>            Generate code for the large model: This model makes no  
> assumptions
>            about addresses and sizes of sections.  Currently GCC does  
> not
>            implement this model.
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
> The ugly thing about this is that to use -mcmodel=medium you need to  
> recompile
> your MPI libraries as well (which in the case of supercomputer centers  
> is not
> something you do). For the PGI compilers and really large arrays it  
> may also
> be a good idea to couple this option with -Mlarge_arrays that makes  
> array
> index arithmetic 64 bit instead of 32 bit to make sure the arrays can  
> be
> addressed properly.
>> From the PGI site at:
> https://www.pgroup.com/userforum/viewtopic.php? 
> t=18&sid=fa1b206eb0fceb46c0e8806513d1fe20
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
> The -mcmodem=medium and -Mlarge_arrays compiler and linker options are
> supported under 64-bit linux environments (they are not supported under
> 32-bit linux environments).
> The -mcmodel=medium option must be used to compile/link a program  
> whose data
> and .bss sections exceed 2GB. In order for the program to use these  
> large
> data sections, additional addressing instructions that support 64-bit  
> offsets
> need to be generated. The effect this option has on performance is a  
> function
> of the amount of data-use in the application. Therefore, this option  
> should
> be used only when the aggregate data size exceeds 2GB.
> The -Mlarge_arrays option tells the compiler that you have at least  
> one single
> static data section (array) larger than 2GB. In this case, array  
> accesses
> require 64-bit index arithmetic. This option must be used in  
> conjunction with
> -mcmodel=medium.
> A tell tale sign that you might need -mcmodel=medium occurs when you  
> get
> warnings from the linker that mention "relocation truncated to fit".
> There are other limitations to -mcmodel=medium (w.r.t. -fpic or
> position-independent code, shared libraries, etc.). Refer to the  
> release
> notes (page 13) for more information:
> http://www.pgroup.com/doc/pgiwsrn.pdf
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
> Why does -fPIC work then?
> A nicely written answer can be found at:
> http://developers.sun.com/tools/cc/articles/about_amd64_abi.html#space
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
>  1. Using the -Kpic option. This creates a position independent code.  
> But the
> compiler will generate 64-bit memory reference by using register  
> indirection
> via the Global Offset Table with the R_AMD64_GOTPCREL relocatable  
> type. This
> will work fine as long as the difference between the current code  
> location
> and the location in the Global Offset Table for the corresponding data  
> object
> is less than 32 bits.
> 2. Allocate all static data objects in heap. Then reference the  
> objects via
> pointer indirection.
> Note the workaround may have a small performance degradation in memory  
> access
> due to reference indirection.
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
> --------
> You also need to keep in mind that there was a limitation in the GNU  
> assembler
> that limited individual common blocks to being less than 2GB in size.  
> This is
> not the case with binutils 2.14 and later.
> These issues came up with my runs at NCAR for some time now but I  
> foolishly
> did not think of letting others know about it as I did not realise  
> others
> were also doing adjoint runs.
> Constantinos
> -- 
> Dr. Constantinos Evangelinos
> Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences
> Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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> MITgcm-support at mitgcm.org
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